I haven't listened to "Christ on the Mount of Olives." The consensus is that it's a mediocre work.
I find the C Major Mass unremarkable.
I love the Missa Solemnis, especially the Credo and Sanctus.
My favorite sacred work of Beethoven's is the Heiliger Dankgesang.
In case Heiliger Dankgesang doesn't count, I voted for Missa Solemnis and other.
This is neither sacred nor a work. It's one movement from a secular instrumental work. Even if there was a tradition to use it to accompany services or similar occasions like for Barber's Adagio (which is not the case, AFAIK), it would not qualify for this poll.Heiliger Dankgesang, the central movement of his Fifteenth String Quartet.
I don't know,it's the central movement of the work and the full title is "Solemn song of thanksgiving from a convalescent to his diety" Beethoven had wacky spirituality for his day but would not be uncommon today.I can see Heiliger Dankgesang as a sacred work with a little imagination.This is neither sacred nor a work. It's one movement from a secular instrumental work. Even if there was a tradition to use it to accompany services or similar occasions like for Barber's Adagio (which is not the case, AFAIK), it would not qualify for this poll.
The impact of the Enlightenment certainly affected Beethoven's religious views. Instead of basing his spirituality on faith, Beethoven's spirituality was, as with most people of the time, founded on the rationale of the Enlightenment. Beethoven was well versed in the teachings of Michael Sailer, the Jesuit theologian and philosopher who had the greatest influence on German Catholicism in Beethoven's day. Beethoven read several of Sailer's works and referred to him often. Sailer taught a "spiritual active religion" and believed that religion should be rationally thought out. The teachings of Sailer are perhaps best reflected in Beethoven's Missa solemnis. Beethoven echoes Sailer's teachings when he wrote that his main goal in writing the Missa was "to awaken and permanently instill religious feelings not only in the singers, but also into the listeners."Beethoven had wacky spirituality for his day but would not be uncommon today.
In some cases, it's more about the context, rather than the nature of the music.The quartet movement might have spiritual content but it is nevertheless only one movement (this would probably be my main reason why it cannot be a sacred work) of a multi-movement instrumental work that happens to have a fancy title and chorale character (like without fancy titles a number of other classical/romantic slow movements, e.g. the one in Beethoven's 9th symphony or quartet op.59/2) but it's still not a sacred work, even in an extended sense. Haydn's 7 last words or Biber's Rosary sonatas might be sacred instrumental music but they have either a history or titles that make this far more clear than the Beethoven. I wouldn't accept Mendelssohn's 5th symphony (or its last movement) or the Parsifal prelude as sacred works either.
Of course, they never did it in their era with any of the works you mention cause they're not compatible with liturgical context the way the Neapolitan style does with opera in the 18th century. There's a reason why K.Ahn235e came into being. The quintet from La Clemenza di Tito would have made for a fine Crucifixus. The Benedictus from K.257 would have made for a fine vocal quartet in opera. Mozart and the others all knew this in composition.If Beethoven had had the fancy to put a title like "choral" or "in nomine domini" on the slow movement of op.59/2 or the "Pathetique" sonata would this also be sacred?
Later on people made choral versions with text (not sure if sacred but vaguely funeral related) of the allegretto from the 7th symphony! This doesn't make it sacred music, only because someone else later used it in this way.
Christer Malmbergs värld - Musik - Klassisk musik - Wolfgang Amadé Mozart "Since opera was the foremost musical genre of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it is hardly surprising that operatic elements should have found their way into the sacred music of the time. This caused the development of the "stilus ecclesiasticus mixtus" or mixed church style, which combined traditional contrapuntal choruses with coloratura solo arias and ensembles. This development began mainly in Naples, hence the term Neapolitan Mass. The imposing solemn Mass or Missa solemnis split the text of the Ordinary of the Mass into separate pieces, like the individual numbers in an opera, a practice which contemporary theoreticians such as Johann Joseph Fux and Meinrad Spiess opposed. They were unable however to arrest the development of this genre, with its leanings towards pomp and showiness."In some cases, it's more about the context, rather than the nature of the music.