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I think it is far more complex and probably different for each composer.
Many very good and highly popular pieces by Prokofiev are earlier; he had the more "classicist" and the more daring strains long before any restrictions. He could have stayed abroad, apparently he really wanted to write popularly in the SU, when he was back there and didn't have to be forced. It's also almost impossible to disentangle honest patriotism (especially once WW 2 had started) from following along with Stalin/Shdanow constraints.

Early Shostakovich is with the Soviet Avantgarde of the 1920s and he clearly was put under pressure in the 1930s. But here we have the phenomenon that several of the highly regarded works are post-Stalin, from the 1950s through early 1970s.

Finally, there were many other "populist" or at least not "spikey avantgarde" composers, such as Copland, Milhaud, Villa Lobos (and many others). There was a broad tendency among the composers born in the 1880s-1900s to become a bit more conservative in the 1920s-30s, either via neoclassicism or in a more individual way. It's a combination of the early 1900s avantgarde taming itself after WW 1 and probably often some biographical "settling down" that occurred almost everywhere, before and regardless of totalitarian politics.
 
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